Exercise is one of the most important parts of owning a puppy, and when you got your puppy, you may have already been envisioning long walks in the park or hiking trails in the wilderness. Of course, exercise is crucial because it helps the density of your puppy's bones, general health and prevents behavioral issues like separation anxiety. However, too much exercise can cause severe problems for your puppy later in life and even be dangerous for them in the short term. So how do you ensure your puppy gets the right amount of exercise? How much exercise is safe for a puppy? For structured exercise, a puppy can walk five minutes on a lead for every month of their age, twice a day. This means the average four-month-old puppy can go for a 20-minute walk twice a day. When determining how much exercise is safe for a puppy, however, one needs to differentiate between structured exercises, like going for a walk or running on a lead, and unstructured activities, such as playing. Puppy walks should also be a relaxed stroll, where your pup gets to sniff about and take their time. No brisk powerwalks! This is because most of a puppy's exercise should come from short bursts of gentle play, where they can rest regularly and take natural breaks. Aside from the five-minute rule, there are other considerations when it comes to exercising your puppy safely. Are you interested in reading our post, Petco vs PetSmart: Which is Better 2023 https://www.houndgames.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Border-Collie-puppy-exercising.jpg Puppy Growth Plates and Exercise Growth plates are the cartilage at the end of the long bones in a puppy's legs. As your puppy grows, these plates calcify and become bone. These soft bits of cartilage give the tibias and femurs (long bones) in your puppy's legs space to expand during the primary growth period of three and nine months. Most dogs have closed the growth plates by the time they are 1 year old, but in giant breeds, this may only happen between 18 and 20 months of age. The important thing is that the growth plates close naturally and evenly in all four legs. Any damage to the cartilage can lead to deformities and musculoskeletal problems later in the dog's life. An injury to one growth plate can stop or slow its growth. At the same time, the others develop normally, and this unevenness can create a deformity. Puppies are particularly prone to this kind of injury during strenuous activity because they lack muscle strength and coordination. Keep in mind that a puppy that's neutered before its bones have stopped growing might have the closing of its growth plates delayed by several months. So extra care needs to be taken with neutered and spayed puppies, especially from large breeds. Breed Size and Shape As we can see from the growth plates, the size of a breed plays a significant role in how much exercise should be allowed. Large and giant breeds, in particular, need gentle, non-strenuous exercise, sometimes until 20 months, to ensure their growth plates have time to close. That includes no jumping or forced running! But toy breeds should be watched too. Their smaller bones can be just as prone to growth plate issues or stress fractures, not to mention that one step you take can mean seven for them. General athleticism should also be taken into account. A brachycephalic (short-nosed breed) with a heavy body like a bulldog will overheat quickly and not have the energy for long walks. On the other hand, an active breed like a Border Collie or German Shorthaired Pointer might need lots of regulated playtimes to burn off their excess energy. Look out for breeds that have extreme features. You definitely want to avoid placing unnecessary strain on the backs of breeds like the Corgi, Dachshund, and the Basset. Immune System Dangers: Puppies and the Outdoors Understandably, many owners may feel confused about when exactly a puppy should be allowed outdoors to exercise. We've written a blog post on this called Puppy Vaccinations: When they can go outside. On the one hand, some experts insist that puppies should only venture out of their yards two weeks after their last vaccination, which could mean the puppy is already 18 weeks old. Others advise at least a week after the second vaccination to accommodate the importance of socializing a puppy during the critical period of four to sixteen weeks. Part of socialization, of course, means exposing your puppy to as much of the world as possible to avoid behavioral issues later on. There's no easy answer about who is correct here, and if in doubt, always speak to your vet. But in general, yes, a puppy should avoid some areas such as dog parks and groomers where there is a higher chance of an unvaccinated, infected dog having passed through. But a study shows that puppies who attend socialization classes before sixteen weeks are at no greater risk of catching Parvo than puppies who don't. We have a post called Where can Puppies Catch Parvo: A Complete List, which can help you decide where you should take your puppy. When a puppy is born, they are protected by their mother's antibodies, but these begin to fade at around six weeks. This is why a puppy's first vaccinations usually occur at this time and then once a month after that for about three months. The idea is to steadily replace the mom's antibodies with the puppy's natural reactions to the vaccinations. Since this takes time, a puppy's immune system is not fully formed until they are around five or six months old. Until then, they are always vulnerable to highly contagious "puppy" diseases like Parvo. Therefore, keep your puppy's vaccinations up to date and avoid places like dog parks. But since the critical socialization period for a puppy is between 5 and 16 weeks, when they need to be exposed to as much as possible, one needs to find a balance. As far as possible, puppies need to be exposed to the outside world, including puppy school, but this should still be done with care to avoid exposure. https://www.houndgames.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/man-treating-puppy-on-walk.jpg Exercise and Environmental Factors How much and how far your puppy can be walked can be severely impacted by the weather. While some breeds may be more affected by heat than others, in general, it's safe to walk your puppy in temperatures up to 68°F (19°C). Of course, keep an eye on dogs that struggle with heat, like the short-nosed Pug or Boston Terrier. On the other hand, walks below 30°F (-1°C) need to be taken with extreme caution unless you have a puppy that's made for the cold, like a Malamute. Short-haired puppies should be bundled up in cold weather with doggy booties if you can persuade your puppy to wear them. Also, avoid any snowy roads that have had salt thrown on them. The salt can sting your puppy's paws and upset their stomach if they then lick it off. Are You Overwalking Your Puppy? When walking your puppy, look for the following signs that you may be overdoing it: \tPanting \tSigns of fatigue like falling behind \tStopping or lying down. \tYou have gone over the recommended time for the age of the puppy on a walk. Even if your puppy doesn't seem tired, it's best to exercise them safely through an activity like swimming or a light game of tug, rather than overdoing it on structured exercise. \tSigns of heat exhaustion or heat stroke, such as excessive panting, drooling, dehydration, vomiting, reddened gums, uncoordinated movement, collapsing, or seizures. If your puppy shows any of these signs, take them to a cool spot to rest and immediately give them water. If the symptoms aren't too severe, either carry them home or make the journey back very slowly after resting. If your puppy appears to have heatstroke, make sure to get to a vet within the hour for treatment. When Should Puppies Start Exercising? Puppies will start exercising themselves from the moment you bring them home, usually around eight weeks. Only, this won't and shouldn't include structured exercise like going for walks yet. First, puppies might have brief bursts of play, especially after they have pottied, been fed, or after a nap. During this time, and for most of the first year, play should be their primary form of exercise. Kinds of play can include: \t Controlled games of tug \t Using a dog lure \t Playing fetch in the garden without asking your puppy to leap in the air to catch the ball (remember, avoid jumping!) \t Playdates with other vaccinated puppies \t Older puppies may enjoy supervised swimming. If your dog struggles to give you back the ball after fetch, you might like to read our post, Dog Won’t Drop the Ball: Teach Your Dog to Drop It For a complete guide to exercising your puppy indoors, you can read here. Mental stimulation is just as crucial for your puppy. During this time, they should: \t Begin obedience training \t Play mental games, such as teaching them to find certain toys or food \t Begin to learn impulse control and boundaries \t Have regular access to puzzle toys that exercise their brains. Puppies can regulate themselves when they play. They can flop over, take a breather, or find a quiet place to take a nap. This is because they do not have the cardiovascular strength for extended periods of exercise, nor do they have the muscles. Naturally, too much stress on their growing bones should be avoided too. However, at eight weeks, you can put a collar or harness on your pup and begin leading them around the garden to accustom them to the idea of being walked. You can turn this into a fun experience by using treats and praise to lure them. In general, a short walk of fifteen minutes on the leash is fine for a three-month-old puppy, who by that age should have had their third vaccination. Avoid busy areas or areas that may have had infected dogs like parks, and simply take a leisurely stroll along your street twice a day. Give your puppy time to sniff around and rest if they need to. How to Exercise a Puppy Before Vaccinations Suppose your puppy has not yet been vaccinated or has not completed its vaccination cycle. In that case, you may want to avoid leaving your house or yard altogether. This means mainly relying on play and mental stimulation to keep your puppy active. Kinds of play can include: \tControlled games of tug (don't pull or yank too hard in case you damage your pup's neck) \tUsing a dog lure \tPlaying fetch in the garden without asking your puppy to leap in the air to catch the ball (remember, avoid jumping!) Mental stimulation is just as crucial for your puppy. During this time, they should: \tBegin obedience training \tPlay mental games, such as teaching them to find certain toys or food. \tBegin to learn impulse control and boundaries \tHave regular access to puzzle enrichment toys that exercise their brains. Keep in mind, however, that viruses like Parvo are particularly nasty. Your pup does not necessarily have to leave home to contract it. An infected bird can poop in your puppy's water bowl, or it could be brought in on the tires of a vehicle that drove over the feces of an infected dog. For this reason, the importance of vaccinating your puppy cannot be overemphasized. And yes, while socialization is essential, minimizing potential exposure should also be kept in mind until their vaccines have been completed. Also, keep in mind that dogs only start building up antibodies three to five days after being vaccinated. Would you like to read our post, Dog is Pooping Jelly: (What To Do) Is it Bad for Puppies to Run? Puppies love to run, and in general, they should be allowed to do so, on their own, while playing. The best place for them to run is in their own yard on soft ground, where they can rest whenever they want. But this does not extend to forced or continuous exercise such as running on a lead. It's best to wait for your puppy to be full-grown before you begin any kind of running regime with them. This is because of the wear and tear running takes on their joints and paw pads and the potential for injury on their growth plates. Even when grown, you should also consider your pup's breed before running. Most giant breeds like Neapolitan Mastiffs will never be a good choice for running because of the strain on their hearts and joints. Short-nosed breeds generally overheat too quickly, and small breeds might simply struggle to go keep up over long distances. Equally, energetic but muscled breeds such as Pit Bulls can tire out over longer distances because of their excess muscle mass. However, a dog such as a Doberman makes for an ideal running partner. But a puppy running about your yard or safe enclosed area is usually fine. In general, keep an eye out for the following: \tThe ground should not be slippery or hard, as this can increase their risk of hip dysplasia (HD). \tThere should be no jumping, as in jumping onto something, over it, or off it, or leaping to catch a frisbee, as this is also hard on a growing pup's joints and can lead to HD. \tIf you have a hyper-energetic dog, such as a Border Collie, make sure they take time to drink water and take a break, as they may not always know when to stop. https://www.houndgames.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/puppy-running-with-ball.jpg Stages of Puppy Exercise Remember, exercise is good for your puppy. Still, for the most part, until they are fully grown, it should occur naturally as part of free running, exploring, and playing. However, you can introduce structured walking on the lead twice a day, ensuring they aren't showing signs of fatigue. You can use the table below as a loose guideline for walks, but please always speak to your vet first about any exercise, especially if your puppy is unusual in any way (massive, small, or anything else that might be affected by too much or too little activity) How far can I walk my puppy table: AGE TIME PER DAY TOTAL 8 weeks 10 mins x 2 20 mins 10 weeks 12.5 mins x 2 25 mins 3 months 15 mins x 2 30 mins 4 months 20 mins x 2 40 mins 6 months 30 mins - 1 hr 30 mins x 2 OR 1 hr x 1 1 hr (depending on puppy) 9 months 30 mins - 1 hr 30 mins x 2 OR 1 hr x 1 1 hr (depending on puppy) A puppy's amount of structured exercise should be regulated according to breed, energy level, and veterinary considerations after a year. A giant breed should still not be exercised excessively and will not be fully matured until they are three years old. And, small or short-nosed breeds should still be watched for fatigue or overheating. However, most athletic breeds such as Border Collies, German Shorthaired Pointers, and Vizslas will need to have the amount of structured exercise ramped up between the first and second years of age. These working breeds will need to eventually work up to between one and two hours of vigorous activity such as running, cani-cross, agility, or sledding for up to two hours. Would you like to read our post, Puppy Humping: Is it normal and what to do? A Final Word After reading about all the risks, you may be afraid to let your puppy out of the house. But remember, so long as you let their bodies naturally dictate the pace, exercise is a necessary and healthy part of your pup's development. It helps them develop the correct bone density, prevents diseases later in life, and prevents behavioral disorders.